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Igrač Rangersa pati od bolesti energetskog pića

Igrač Rangersa pati od bolesti energetskog pića


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Problemi s vidom zbog previše sportskih napitaka prisiljavaju Josha Hamiltona da napusti teren ove sedmice.

Josh Hamilton, vanjski igrač Texas Rangersa, dijagnosticiran je s onim što neki nazivaju jednom od najčudnijih sportskih ozljeda svih vremena: problemima vida koji su posljedica prekomjerne konzumacije energetskih pića. Hamilton, koji je u utorak, 18. septembra napustio utakmicu protiv Angelsa, žalio se na suhe oči i otežano kretanje očiju još prošle godine. Kad je njegovo igranje postalo ozbiljno narušeno u prošloj sedmici, ostavio je svoj tim na putu i vratio se kući u Teksas radi dijagnoze: stanja zvanog očni keratitis.

Za očni keratitis, koji uzrokuje isušivanje rožnice, kaže se da je uzrokovan prekomjernom konzumacijom kofeina koji se nalazi u kafi i sportskim napicima, a oba Hamilton je redovno pio velike količine. Stanje, poznato i kao "autocesta hipnoza", dijagnoza je obično rezervirana za dugotrajne vozače kamiona koji se oslanjaju na kofein kako bi bili na oprezu na cesti. Tretmani uključuju smanjeni unos kofeina i upotrebu kapi za oči.

Sinoć se Hamilton vratio na teren da se suoči sa Atleticom. Njegovo novo piće po izboru? Voda.


Student Uni je otišao na intenzivnu njegu nakon četiri limenke energetskog napitka dnevno

Link je kopiran

Maj: Razmotrićemo zabranu energetskih napitaka za mlađe od 16 i#039 godina

Kada se pretplatite, koristit ćemo podatke koje ste nam poslali za slanje ovih biltena. Ponekad će uključivati ​​preporuke za druge srodne biltene ili usluge koje nudimo. Naša Obavijest o privatnosti objašnjava više o tome kako koristimo vaše podatke i vaša prava. Možete se odjaviti u bilo kojem trenutku.

21-godišnji muškarac proveo je skoro dva mjeseca u bolnici jer su zabrinuti ljekari razmišljali o transplantaciji srca. On je trpio posljedice opijanja dva litra energetskog napitka svaki dan mjesecima, navodi se u izvještaju slučaja u British Medical Journal -u.

Povezani članci

Muškarac, koji je opisao svoju muku kao "traumatizirajući", zatražio je medicinsku pomoć nakon što je oko četiri mjeseca patio od nedostatka daha i gubitka težine.

Čak je doživio i lupanje srca, izvještava Manchester Evening News.

Krvni testovi, snimanja i EKG očitanja otkrili su da je student imao zatajenje srca i bubrega, a zatajenje bubrega povezano je s dugotrajnim i prethodno nedijagnosticiranim stanjem.

Ljekari su rekli da je "kardiotoksičnost izazvana energetskim pićima" najvjerojatniji uzrok njegove teške srčane insuficijencije, pri čemu je svaka limenka energetskog napitka koju je čovjek konzumirao sadržavala oko 160 mg kofeina.

Autori izvještaja su primijetili da tri mjeseca prije prijema u bolnicu nije mogao nastaviti fakultet zbog svoje letargije i osjećaja lošeg zdravlja.

Supermarketi prodaju niz energetskih pića (Slika: PA)

U izvještaju su autori iz Guy & rsquos i St Thomas & rsquo NHS Foundation Trust napisali: & ldquoPrijavljujemo slučaj teške biventrikularne srčane insuficijencije koja je potencijalno povezana s prekomjernom konzumacijom energetskih napitaka u 21-godišnjeg muškarca. "

Taj čovjek nije imao istoriju bolesti osim prekomjernog unosa energetskih pića, dodali su, dodajući da njihov zaključak "dodaje rastuću zabrinutost u literaturi o potencijalnim kardiotoksičnim učincima energetskih napitaka".

U izvještaju se navodi da se čini da se srčana funkcija muškarca vratila u normalu sa & ldquomildly oštećenom funkcijom "devet mjeseci kasnije.

Oporavljeni pacijent dodao je svoja razmišljanja u članak, opisujući svoje vrijeme na odjelu intenzivne njege kao "izuzetno traumatično" i pozvao na dodatne oznake upozorenja na pićima.

Trending

Student je napisao: & ldquoKad sam pio do četiri energetska pića dnevno, patio sam od podrhtavanja i lupanja srca, što je ometalo moju sposobnost da se koncentriram na svakodnevne zadatke i studije na fakultetu.

& ldquoI također sam patio od jakih migrenskih glavobolja koje su se često javljale u razdobljima kada nisam pio energetsko piće, to je također ograničavalo moju sposobnost obavljanja svakodnevnih zadataka, pa čak i ležernih aktivnosti, poput odlaska u park ili šetnje.

& ldquoMislim da bi trebalo biti više svijesti o energetskim pićima i učinku njihovog sadržaja.

& ldquoVjerujem da su vrlo ovisni i previše pristupačni maloj djeci. Mislim da bi trebalo napraviti oznake upozorenja, slične pušenju, kako bi se ilustrirale potencijalne opasnosti sastojaka u energetskom piću. & Rdquo

Dolazi nakon odvojene studije, objavljene u časopisu Plos One, koja je istaknula unos energetskih pića među tinejdžerima.

Akademici sa Univerziteta u Cardiffu analizirali su odgovore zdravstvenog istraživanja na više od 176.000 srednjoškolaca u Velsu od 11 do 16 godina.

Podaci, izvučeni iz odgovora između 2013. i 2017. godine, pokazuju da je šest posto učenika reklo da su pili energetska pića & ldquodaily & rdquo & ndash trend koji se nije mijenjao s vremenom.


Ono što se dogodilo na rijeci Pease nije bila bitka. Bio je to masakr.

Kako je lična mitologija Texas Rangera prihvaćena kao popularna istorija.

Rani izvještaji o bitci kod Pease River čitali su se poput holivudskih filmskih obrada iz pedesetih godina. Hrabri mladi heroj, Sul Ross, predvodio je male snage Texas Rangersa, američkih konjičkih trupa i dobrovoljaca milicije u borbi protiv mnogo veće grupe ratnika Komanča predvođenih legendarnim poglavicom Petom Noconom. Bilo je to prije 160 godina, 19. decembra 1860. - hladan, bljutav dan - i koalicija Rangersa imala je element iznenađenja na svojoj strani. "Napad je bio toliko iznenadan da je znatan broj [Komanča] ubijen prije nego što su se mogli pripremiti za odbranu", rekao je Ross godinama kasnije u izjavi dostavljenoj povjesničaru Jamesu T. DeShieldsu.

Prema pričama koje su bile popularne u to vrijeme, nakon što su porazili ratnike, Ross i još jedan rendžer, Tom Killiheir, progonili su Noconu, djevojku i ženu koja je držala dijete u bijegu na konjima. Ross je ubio djevojčicu i ozlijedio Noconu, a zatim je naredio svom meksičkom slugi da ga pošalje sačmaricom. Killiheir je u međuvremenu zarobio drugu ženu, koja se zvala Naduah, i njenu kćer.

Naduah je kasnije rekla Amerikancima da je rođena kao Cynthia Ann Parker. Dvadeset četiri godine ranije, kao dijete, Parker je oteta tokom krvave racije na imanje njene porodice u okrugu Limestone, trideset milja istočno od Waca: bila je najpoznatiji bijeli zatočenik na granici s Teksasom. Ali do 1860. godine, tada srednjih tridesetih, postala je Komanča. Bila je udana za Noconu i bila je majka troje djece, uključujući Quanah Parker, koja je kasnije postala zapaženi vođa Komanča i šef rezervata.

Napad, a posebno hvatanje žene koja je bila Cynthia Ann Parker od strane Rangersa, bila je velika vijest u Teksasu. Događaj je proslavio Rossa, koji ima samo 22 godine. "Dakle, signalizirajte da pobjeda nikada nije postignuta nad žestokim i ratnim Komančima", napisao je DeShields u svojoj knjizi iz 1886. Cynthia Ann Parker: Priča o njenom hvatanju. "Velika konfederacija Komanča zauvijek je razbijena."

Nadovezujući se na svoje podvige u Pease Riveru, Ross je nastavio služiti kao general Konfederacije, senator teksaške države, dva mandata guverner i predsjednik sadašnjeg univerziteta Texas A & ampM, na poziciji koju je imao kada je umro 1898. (Sul Ross State University je takođe dobio ime po njemu). Ross je primljen u Kuću slavnih Texas Rangera zbog svoje "vještine i hrabrosti". No, kako je popularna priča o Pease Riveru preispitana u svjetlu dugo zanemarivanih izvještaja i drugih dokaza, tako je i Rossovo junaštvo.

U sunčano jutro prošle jeseni napustio sam vodopad Wichita i otputovao na sjeverozapad do ušća Mule Creeka u rijeku Pease u okrugu Foard, kako bih se susreo s Ronom Parkerom, praunukom Quanah Parker i praunukom Naduaha i Peta Nocone .

Htio sam iz prve ruke vidjeti mjesto ove legende o Teksasu, ali kad sam stigao, nije mi se učinilo posebno monumentalno. Pease se nije razlikovao od rijeka koje sam odrastao u ravnicama dvije stotine milja sjeverno. Tlo se kretalo od crvene gline do pijeska, a tragovi kojota, divljih svinja i stoke obilježili su obale rijeke uz njenu sporo tekuću slanu vodu. U blizini su šikare mesquita i invazivnih slanih kedrova grlile Mule Creek, izvor potoka.

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Kako se Polly Abarca borila da uvede kontrolu rađanja u južni Teksas

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Parker i ja pratili smo stočarske staze u blizini potoka i rijeke. Zaustavili smo se samo jednom, kada smo iz četke ispirali dvadesetak divljih purana. Dok smo hodali dalje, Parker je podijelio verziju "bitke" koju su ga učili Komanči.

"Pease River je bio masakr pod vodstvom Rangera", rekao mi je Parker. Njegov prapradjed Peta Nocona, rekao je, nije bio ni blizu akcije. "U to vrijeme Nocona je bio sa sinovima tinejdžerima Quanahom i Pecosom i drugim ratnicima." Nocona je umro nekoliko godina kasnije u blizini brda Antilope u Oklahomi, rekao je Parker. "Umro je od infekcije."

Parker, veteran Vijetnamskog rata, također je direktor društva Quanah Parker sa sjedištem u obližnjem gradu Quanah u okrugu Hardeman, nazvanom po njegovom pradjedu. Njegova verzija događaja definitivno je u suprotnosti s Rossovom pričom i prikazima u istorijskim knjigama. (Isti račun koji je Ross dao DeShields također se pojavljuje u John Wesley Wilbarger's Indijska predviđanja u Teksasu, objavljeno 1889. godine, koje Komisija za državnu biblioteku i arhivu u Teksasu smatra "vrijednom hronikom višedecenijske bitke za kontrolu nad Teksasom", iako knjiga "oštro osuđuje Indijance i ne pokušava uzeti u obzir njihovo gledište". ))

Što sam više materijala prikupio o događajima na Pease Riveru, Parkerova je verzija izgledala vjerodostojnija. U jednom intervjuu 1928. godine, jedan od rendžera koji je učestvovao, Hiram B. Rogers, takođe je opisao masakr: „Bio sam u borbi na reci Pease, ali nisam ponosan na to. To uopće nije bila bitka, već samo ubijanje [žena]. ” Pitao sam se kako je masakr pretvoren u veliku pobjedu Rangera. Uskoro bih saznao da je sam Ross u velikoj mjeri odgovoran.

Ilustracija Christopher DeLorenzo

Dva puta kidnapovan

Naduah je umro 1871. godine, jedanaest godina nakon što je ponovo zarobljen. “Opaki Parkerovi ljudi kojima je vraćena bili su joj potpuno strani”, napisao je J. Frank Dobie 1926. “Pripadala je Komančima, svojoj djeci i nomadskom životu u ravnicama. Umrla je od tuge.

Rođen 1838. Lawrence Sullivan “Sul” Ross odrastao je uglavnom u Wacu, koji je u to vrijeme bio na granici sa Teksasom. Ross je 1858. vodio pomoćno starosjedilačko stanovništvo, koje se sastojalo od pripadnika nacija prijateljskih prema europskim Amerikancima i neprijateljski raspoloženih prema Komančama, koje su podržavale američke konjičke trupe koje su se borile protiv Komanča. Ross je zadobio ozbiljne rane od strijela i metaka u bitci kod jednog sela naroda Wichita. Izvijestio je da su se Komanči koji su ga ustrijelili zvali Mohee - ime koje će Ross kasnije upotrijebiti u izvještaju o Pease Riveru.

Ross je završio fakultet u Alabami dok se oporavljao od ozljeda. Povratak u Teksas početkom 1860. godine, pridružio se Rangersima na vrijeme kako bi kapetanirao grupu iz Waca u ozloglašeno nesposobnoj kampanji, koju je predvodio Middleton Tate Johnson, u borbi protiv Komanča. Slabo opremljena i „iz prve loše upravljana“, prema riječima historičara Waltera Prescotta Webba, ekspedicija nije uspjela pobijediti ratnike. Mnogi od Rendžera su puno pili. Johnson je čak neko vrijeme napustio svoju zapovijed da se vjenča u Galvestonu.

Johnsonova kampanja ostavila je mrlju na Rossovom dosijeu - ono što je možda želio ukloniti. Kasnije, 1860. godine, dobio je priliku kada ga je guverner Sam Houston imenovao da osnuje Ranger kompaniju kako bi progonio Comanche koji su vršili racije u bijelim naseljima. Regrutovao je četrdeset ljudi. Dvadesetak američkih konjičkih vojnika nadopunjavalo je Rangers. Pridružilo im se i devedesetak lokalnih milicajaca.

Samohrani poljoprivrednici na granici 1850 -ih bojali su se Komanča. Samo nekoliko decenija ranije, Komanči su vladali većinom današnje države Lone Star, iako nećete vidjeti njeno carstvo predstavljeno među "šest zastava nad Teksasom" na Kapitoliju. Komanči su bili ratoborni i žestoko su štitili svoje travnjake. Oni su takođe bili preduzetnici koji su izgradili ravničarsku ekonomiju oko svog junaštva u lovu bizona i uzgoju konja. Vješti diplomate Komanča često su u pregovorima nadmašivali Špance i Francuze, a njihovi trgovci dominirali su sajmovima u Novom Meksiku i Louisiani.

Na prijelazu u devetnaesto stoljeće, oko 40.000 plemenskih pripadnika naselilo je Comancheríu, koja se prostirala širokim dijelom središnjeg Teksasa, te kroz Oklahomu i Kanzas. No, do trenutka kada je Ross krenuo sa svojim Rangersima 1860. godine, nacija Komanča je bila u velikom padu. Suša, glad i bolesti uvezene poplavama evropskih Amerikanaca smanjile su njihovu populaciju na oko pet hiljada.

Počevši od 1850 -ih, Komanči su izvršili zlobne napade na granicu Teksasa. Dok su se Ross i njegove trupe kretali prema sjeverozapadu prema Crvenoj rijeci, pronašli su Bibliju i druge predmete koji su odneseni sa imanja. Ross je ovo shvatio kao značenje da je na tragu napadača iz Comanchea. 19. decembra zatekao je Komanče kako se ulogorio na Mule Creeku, otprilike četvrt do pola milje iznad njegovog ušća u Pease.

Charles Milton Bell/Bell Collection/Smithsonian Institution Nacionalni antropološki arhiv

Zbirke Memorijalnog književnog društva Konfederacije

Pejzaži se menjaju vremena, posebno negdje poput zemlje Pease River. Ali kad smo Parker i ja krenuli kravljom stazom do ravnog područja uz Mule Creek, gdje je bilo mjesta za pašu konja i gdje su se sa svake strane uzdizale obale pružajući zaštitu od vjetra, mogao sam zamisliti prizor.

Kad sam posjetio web lokaciju, dovoljno sam istražio da znam nesporne činjenice o tome što se tamo dogodilo: Rendžeri i konjica napali su milicijske konje koji su bili previše "izmoreni" ili umorni pa nisu sudjelovali. Kada je to bilo gotovo, Naduah, njena mlada kćerka i jedan dječak iz Komanča su odvedeni u zarobljeništvo.

Tela nekoliko ubijenih Komanča ležala su na smrznutom tlu. Bilo je vjerovatno da je šačica Komanča - možda šest - pobjegla. Rossova kohorta nije pretrpjela žrtve. Rendžeri su okupili tridesetak konja i mazgi. Među poginulima su i četiri žene. Tri muškarca, vjerovatno još dječaci, takođe su umrla. Sve se odigralo u samo nekoliko minuta.

Dok je tražio javnu funkciju u godinama nakon građanskog rata, Ross je uljepšao detalje događaja kako bi izgledao herojski. Legenda o ranču Charles Goodnight, koji je inspirisao lik Woodrow Call -a Usamljena golubica, nekoć prozvan Rossom „lažljivi četverac“, staromodan izraz za nekoga ko iznosi prazne tvrdnje za ličnu korist.

Da bih saznao više o četverostrukom ispiranju, odvezao sam se zatim dvjesto kilometara do kuće umirovljenog odvjetnika i bivšeg okružnog suca u okrugu Hood, Toma Cruma, na rijeci Brazos jugoistočno od Granburyja. Crum je proveo više od 25 godina istražujući masakr 1860. godine. Pronašao je devet računa koje je Ross dao, svi različiti. "On bi bio idealna osoba za svjedoke", rekao je Crum, "dok ne bude unakrsno ispitan".

Crum i ja proveli smo dva popodneva pregledavajući zbirku primarnih i sekundarnih izvora koje su on i njegov prijatelj Paul Carlson, emeritus profesor historije na Texas Tech -u, koristili prilikom pisanja knjige o tom danu, Mit, sjećanje i masakr: Zauzimanje Cynthie Ann Parker iz rijeke Pease. Na kraju je Crum natrpao moj auto gomilama materijala za ponijeti kući. Najupečatljiviji izvor bio je debeli poveznik s tri prstena koji je sadržavao stotine stranica otkucanog teksta s jednim razmakom, što je iz prve ruke zapis o događajima u Teksasu u devetnaestom stoljeću od strane čovjeka po imenu John Hamilton Baker.

Baker je 1850 -ih stigao u Teksas s namjerom da postane učitelj. Otvorio je školu u Palo Pintu, 56 milja zapadno od Fort Worth -a, a zatim osnovao prvu gradsku metodističku crkvu prije nego što se preselio u Granbury, skoro 40 milja jugoistočno. Takođe je počeo da vodi dnevnik i nastavio je to da radi šezdeset godina. Baker je jahao s milicijom koja je podržavala Rossove rendžere i konjanike, a on je kao svjedok zabilježio ono što se dogodilo na rijeci. Nakon što je pucnjava utihnula, izvijestio je Baker, milicioneri su naišli na Rossa na Peasu. Ross je vikao da su on i njegova grupa naišli na petnaest Komanča, ubivši dvanaest i uzevši trojicu u zarobljeništvo. Pripadnici milicije požurili su uz Mule Creek onoliko brzo koliko su ih dotrajali konji mogli nositi.

Ross je postao kreativniji u godinama nakon tog događaja. Ovog puta, rekao je da je bio prisutan poglavica po imenu Mohee, i tvrdio da se borio s njim mano mano, ubijajući ga.

"Pronašli smo samo četiri mrtva Indijanca, sve [žene]", napisao je Baker. Bejker je takođe video Naduah, njenu ćerku i mladog dečaka iz Komanča, koga bi Ross poveo sa sobom kući i dao mu ime Pease Ross. Ali nije bilo traga od osmorice drugih Komanča za koje se tvrdilo da su ih ubili. Baker je izvijestio da je zaplijenjeno tridesetak komančkih konja i mazgi, od kojih su neki milicionari prepoznali stoku ukradenu od poljoprivrednika. Sljedećeg dana, Baker je u svoj dnevnik zapisao da su milicioneri pronašli još tri mrtva Komanča, svi muškarci. Baker ne navodi njihovu starost, ali je vjerovatno, na osnovu definitivne definicije profesorke iz Oxforda Pekke Hämäläinen Comanche Carstvo, da su dvojica dječaka - možda čak i sa deset godina - koji su imali zadatak brinuti se o konjima u skladu s tradicionalnom podjelom odgovornosti Komanča. Treći je možda odrasla osoba zamijenjena sa poglavarom. Baker je izbrojao ukupno sedam mrtvih, a ne desetak koje je Ros tvrdio. Baker je također izvijestio da je čak šest Comanchea pobjeglo.

Samo nekoliko dana nakon događaja, Ross je rekao dopisniku časopisa Dallas Herald da je trinaest Komanča ubijeno. Zatim je Ross svoj službeni izvještaj podnio guverneru Houstonu. U njemu je Ross rekao da je broj mrtvih dvanaest, te naveo da je dječak iz Komanča koji je zarobljen bio sin jednog poglavice. (Baker u svom dnevniku nije spomenuo ništa o poglavaru.) Ross je također rekao da je broj zarobljenih životinja četrdeset. U januaru 1861. u Galvestonu se pojavio račun Pease River Civil iznoseći tvrdnju da se Ross borio prsa u prsa sa šefom Komanča. Nakon toga, razne priče o Pease Riveru uključivale su bitku s poglavarom.

U junu 1875 Galveston News objavio je Rossovo pismo u kojem se detaljno opisuje "ispravna istorija" onoga što se dogodilo na Mule Creeku. Pogrešno je naveo datum kao 18. decembar, što je dovelo do decenija grešaka u spisima Pease River -a drugih pisaca. Ross je postao kreativniji u godinama nakon tog događaja. Ovog puta, rekao je da je bio prisutan poglavica po imenu Mohee, i tvrdio da se borio s njim mano mano, ubijajući ga. Mohee - ime koje je Ross primijenio na Komanče koji su ga ustrijelili u bitci kod sela Wichita, tamo ga je očigledno ubio jedan od Rossovih kolega Rendžera - vratio se u život, da bi još jednom umro na Mule Creeku. U ovom Rossovom izvještaju, broj razbacanih ili ubijenih komančkih konja povećan je na 350.

Na kraju je Ross pretvorio Moheea u Peta Noconu i rekao da je on, Ross, režirao smrt Comanchea na Mule Creeku. Crum i Parker su međutim sigurni da Nocona nije ubijen na reci Pease. Quanah Parker je u nekoliko navrata rekao da mu je otac umro sredinom 1860-ih. Tumač američke vojske Horace. P. Jones, koji je radio u Camp Cooperu, u Teksasu i u Fort Cobbu, na indijskom teritoriju, i koji je poznavao Noconu, rekao je da je razgovarao s Noconom u Fort Cobbu više od godinu dana nakon masakra u Pease River -u.

U to vrijeme Rossovo pismo Galveston News je objavljeno, Rekonstrukcija se gasila na jugu. Bivši konfederati, poput Rossa, vraćali su se nazad u javni život. Ross je postao šerif okruga McLennan 1873. godine, ali je imao veće političke ambicije: dao je ostavku dvije godine kasnije i izabran je za delegata Teksaške ustavne konvencije 1875. godine. 1880. kandidirao se za državni senat i pobijedio. Do 1885. gledao je u utrku za guvernera. Rossov savremenik rekao je da je "borba u Pease River -u i zarobljavanje Cynthie Ann Parker učinila Sul Ross guvernerom Teksasa."

Victor Rose, novinar iz Viktorije koji je služio pod Rossom tokom građanskog rata, odigrao je ulogu u pomaganju svom bivšem komandantu da objavi svoju kritiku o incidentu u Pease River -u. U prepisci, Ross je zahvalio Rose na način na koji je novinar "dotjerao" Rossove priče. Naredio je Rose da objave u Pease Riveru objave u novinama ne kao oglase, već kao vijesti ili uvodnike. Crum u svojoj knjizi sugerira da je Ross bio zabrinut da će javnost otkriti političke motive u reklami. "Zadovoljan sam što bi ovo objavljivanje uveliko povećalo moj glas", napisao je Ross Rose. Nisam iskopao nikakve dodatne Rossove račune u novinama nakon 1875. godine, ali on je pronašao učinkovitiji način širenja priče. DeShieldsova popularna knjiga, Cynthia Ann Parker, pojavila se baš na vrijeme za guvernerove izbore 1886. Knjiga je sadržavala Rossovu cijelu višestraničnu izjavu o Pease Riveru. Prema izjavi, to je bila velika bitka i mnogi ratnici su ubijeni Ross je odgovoran za smrt Pete Nocone, a Cynthia Ann Parker je herojski oporavljena. Ross je ručno pobijedio na izborima.

Štaviše, DeShieldsov račun o Pease Riveru prihvaćen je kao standard. „Od takvih stvari“, napisao je jednom prilikom John John Graves o incidentu, „izgrađeni su istinski mitovi, a među mitovima koje imamo Teksašani, priča o Parkeru jedna je od najmoćnijih od svih.“ Ross je zasigurno shvatio moć vlastite mitologije.

Ovaj članak prvobitno se pojavio u izdanju časopisa za januar 2021 Texas Monthly s naslovom "Bitka koja nije bila".


Glavni trener: Paul Highton, 41

Nekadašnji rekvizit za ragbi u Walesu gotovo je smrtonosno oslabio zbog njegovih ovisnosti. Sada, kao upravitelj socijalne skrbi za Salford Red Devils, pomaže drugima da izbjegnu njegove greške

& ldquoKada sam se povukao iz ragbija 2009. godine, imao sam spisak ljudi koje nisam & rsquot želio da završim. Vidio sam igrače sa međunarodnim karijerama koji su izgubili porodicu i kuću i borili se za posao. Pa sam otišao na fakultet, a zatim osnovao posao.

& ldquoAli, otprilike 18 mjeseci kasnije, počeo sam se pitati ko sam. Nakon operacije prepisan mi je tramadol. Prolazio sam kroz razvod dok sam pokušavao biti otac, i svaki put kad sam se osjećao slomljeno, koristio sam lijek da to popravim. Prešla sam sa uzimanja šest tableta dnevno na uzimanje 30. Moje mentalno zdravlje je prošlo kroz čitav niz. Kod kuće sam započeo rasprave kao izgovor za odlazak, što sam i učinio. Dobio sam vikendicu na Saddleworth Mooru: trebalo je to biti moje sigurno utočište, gdje sam se mogao očistiti. Ali samoća je sve pogoršala.

& ldquoJedne noći namjestio sam sve u podrum da se ubijem, ali sam zaspao nakon što sam popio bocu vina. To mi je spasilo život. Ujutro sam shvatio šta sam skoro učinio. Bilo mi je to poput čekića sa strane. Prvi put sam priznao sebi da imam problem. Ipak, nisam znala je li to problem s drogom, problem s pićem ili depresijom ili s čime se prvo treba pozabaviti. Zato sam poslao e -poruku klinici Sporting Chance i
dobio sam odgovor čim sam počeo primati terapiju, piće i lijekovi su prestali, a ja sam pronašao konstruktivne načine da se nosim sa svojim emocijama. Pomoglo mi je da vidim ko su ljudi u mojoj mreži s kojima mogu biti otvoren i iskren.

& ldquoLjudi misle da se kvarovi događaju samo onima u ekstremnim situacijama. Istina je da se to može dogoditi svakome. Svi mi se borimo. & Rsquos govori o tome da ste svjesni svojih okidača, kako se ponašate u teškim situacijama i kako sljedeći put možete poboljšati. & Rdquo


13 James Doohan - Nedostaje cijeli prst

Kad smo već kod odsječenih prstiju, glumac James Doohan, najpoznatiji po ulozi Montgomeryja "Scottyja" Scotta na Zvjezdane staze, amputiran mu je desni prst nakon što je pogođen tokom Drugog svjetskog rata. Događaj je zapravo prilično lud. Jedne noći, dok je išao između komandnih mjesta, jedan od njegovih ljudi, kanadski vojnik, ustrijelio je Doohana šest puta. Četiri metka su ga pogodila u nogu, jedan u prsa, ali ga je zaustavila metalna tabakera, a druga mu je prošla kroz prst. Kasnije mu je amputiran. Ako prođete i gledate Zvjezdane staze, postoji nekoliko trenutaka kada možete vidjeti nestali prst, ali on je to odlično sakrio. Ne zbog srama, već zbog toga kakva bi to zaista bila budućnost ako ne možemo zamijeniti prste. Još jedan glumac, Walter Emanuel Jones, originalni Black Ranger iz Power Rangers, takođe mu nedostaje srednji prst. Izgubio ga je tokom nesreće kada je imao četiri godine, ali to više nije objasnio.


10 najboljih namirnica za borbu protiv depresije - od ribe do voća

Kada je profesorica Felice Jacka 2005. godine prvi put počela proučavati utjecaj prehrane na mentalno zdravlje, ljudi su mislili da je pomalo luda.

"Predlaganje onoga što jedemo moglo bi utjecati na to kako se osjećamo, za mnoge, bilo je u domenu hipi-tripijskog vjerovanja, a ne na dokazima, umjesto prave medicine", kaže Australac.

“Čini se da su mnogi prezirali ideju da bi prehrana mogla biti od značaja za mentalno zdravlje.

"Tada jednostavno nije bilo mnogo naučnih dokaza koji povezuju hranu i raspoloženje."

Jacka, jedan od najboljih svjetskih istraživača nutricionističke psihijatrije, zainteresirala se za svoje područje zbog ličnog iskustva.

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Kao dijete razvila je anksiozni poremećaj, a zatim je kao tinejdžerka odrastala u Melbourneu pretrpjela napade panike i napade depresije.

No, usredotočila se na vježbanje, prehranu i san - a do kasnih dvadesetih se oporavila.

Nakon što je prethodno pohađala umjetničku školu, Jacka je odlučila da se vrati na fakultet kako bi studirala psihologiju, doktorirajući doktor koji je donio tako značajne nalaze da se pojavio na naslovnici American Journal of Psychiatry.

Njegovo najveće otkriće bilo je to da su žene koje konzumiraju dijete bogate povrćem, voćem, neprerađenim crvenim mesom, ribom i integralnim žitaricama, imale manje šanse da pate od depresije ili anksioznih poremećaja od svojih kolega koje su jele tipičnije „zapadnjačke“ prehrane prepune prerađene hrane, poput kao pite od mesa, hamburgeri, pizza, čips, bijeli hljeb i bezalkoholna pića.

Možda je iznenađujuće ipak pokazalo da su oni čija se prehrana vrti oko ribe, tofua, pasulja, oraha, jogurta i crnog vina također patili od VIŠE depresije.

(Ispostavilo se da je to posljedica nedostatka crvenog mesa. Suprotno svim njenim predviđanjima, daljnje istraživanje koje je provela profesorica Jacka otkrilo je da su žene koje su jele više crvenog mesa imale 20-30 posto manju vjerovatnoću da imaju istoriju depresivnog anksioznog poremećaja ).

Jacka, koja je sada direktorica Food & amp Mood Centra na Univerzitetu Deakin u Australiji, te osnivačica i predsjednica Međunarodnog društva za istraživanje psihijatrije u ishrani, rekla je: „Kada sam istraživala, vidjela sam vrlo jasnu vezu između konzumiranja crvenog mesa i mentalnog zdravlje - ali ne u smjeru koji sam očekivao. ”

Njeno istraživanje je jasno pokazalo da „u usporedbi sa ženama koje konzumiraju preporučenu količinu crvenog mesa (65-100 g tri do četiri puta tjedno), one koje jedu manje ili više od toga bile su otprilike dvostruko vjerojatnije da će imati kliničku depresiju ili anksiozni poremećaj. ”

Od tog prvog istraživačkog rada, profesor Jacka je objavio više od 150 recenziranih naučnih radova koji su promijenili mišljenje javnosti o uzrocima mentalnih bolesti.

Na primjer, 2015. godine otkrila je da, u suštini, nezdrava hrana smanjuje naš mozak - ili barem lijevi hipokampus (koji djelomično regulira emocije, pamćenje i mentalno zdravlje). „Otkrili smo da nedovoljno dobrih stvari, a previše loših stvari predstavlja problem,“ kaže Jacka.

Ali to je bila njezina studija SMILES (Podrška promjeni načina života u smanjenim emocionalnim stanjima) objavljena 2017. godine, koja bi mogla dokazati da se život mijenja svima koji imaju problema s mentalnim zdravljem.

Za ispitivanje, muškarcima i ženama s kliničkom depresijom dodijeljena je ili grupa za podršku u ishrani ili socijalna podrška.

"Dijeta je razvijena koristeći sve što smo do sada naučili o vezama između prehrane, zdravlja crijeva i mentalnog i zdravlja mozga, a temeljila se i na tradicionalnoj mediteranskoj prehrani i na australijskim prehrambenim smjernicama", kaže Jacka.

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“Tim je to nazvao ModiMed dijeta kako bi označio da je to modificirana verzija tradicionalne mediteranske prehrane.

“Posebno je dizajniran da bude jednostavan za izradu i praćenje - i jeftin.”

Plan je zahtijevao da jedete više voća, povrća, cjelovitih žitarica, mahunarki, orašastih plodova, mliječnih proizvoda s niskim udjelom masti, ribe i nemasnog mesa, a istovremeno smanjite prerađenu nezdravu hranu i alkohol. Rezultati su bili zapanjujući.

Nakon tri mjeseca, trećina ispitanika na dijeti ModiMed poboljšala je svoje mentalno stanje dovoljno da kažu da je njihova depresija ušla u remisiju, u poređenju sa samo 8% u drugoj grupi socijalne podrške.

"Jednostavno rečeno, što je više ljudi poboljšalo svoju prehranu, to se više poboljšala njihova depresija", kaže ona.

Profesorica Jacka sada je destilirala svoje nalaze iz posljednjih 15 godina istraživanja u novu knjigu - Brain Changer: How Diete Can Save Your Mental Health, upotpunjenu planovima obroka i receptima za poboljšanje mentalnog blagostanja.

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Ona smatra da bismo svoju hranu trebali smatrati osnovom svog mentalnog i moždanog zdravlja tijekom života.

“Iako nam se godinama govorilo da će ultra prerađena hrana bogata energijom i štetnim aditivima, a ima malo vlakana i hranjivih tvari značiti više bolesti i ranu smrt od kroničnih bolesti, tek nedavno smo shvatili posljedice za naše mentalno zdravlje i zdravlje našeg mozga. "

Što je još važnije, za razliku od mnogih faktora rizika mentalnih bolesti - poput vaših gena, zlostavljanja, značajnih trauma ili fizičkih uzroka poput ozljeda glave - dijeta je nešto čime se možemo sami pozabaviti.

„Ono što stavljamo u usta zaista je važno“, kaže ona. “Nemojte da vas zavede brza, jeftina i ukusna hrana - cijena koju platite zaista neće vrijediti.”

Profesor Jacka & aposs Deset savjeta o hrani

1 Odaberite voće, povrće i orahe kao užinu. Jedite 3 porcije voća i 30 g (1½ kašike) neslanih oraha svaki dan.

2 Uključite povrće u svaki obrok. Svaki dan jedite lisnato povrće i paradajz.

3 Odaberite integralni kruh i žitarice. Veličinu poslužite na osnovu nivoa aktivnosti.

4 Jedite mahunarke (sočivo, grašak, slanutak, pasulj, soju i kikiriki) tri ili četiri puta sedmično.

5 Jedite masnu ribu najmanje dva puta sedmično.

6 Jedite nemasno crveno meso tri ili četiri puta sedmično, ali ograničite veličinu serviranja na 65–100 g.

7 Uključite dvije do tri porcije mliječnih proizvoda svaki dan. Odaberite proizvode sa smanjenom masnoćom i običan jogurt.

8 Koristite maslinovo ulje kao glavnu dodatnu masnoću. Koristite 3 žlice ekstra djevičanskog maslinovog ulja svaki dan.

9 Čuvajte slatkiše za posebne prilike.

10 Voda je najbolje piće.

Priče o hrani

Izmjenjeni uzorak izbornika

Na prvi pogled ovaj plan može izgledati prilično restriktivan, ali ideja je samo pružiti smjernice. Ne namjerava se strogo pridržavati mjerenja, vaganja i bilježenja hrane.

Breakfast: 1 poached egg on 2 slices soya and linseed bread with avocado, tomato and spinach

Snack: 200g Greek yoghurt with 1 cup fresh or frozen berries

Lunch: 1–2 wholegrain flat breads with 95g tinned tuna and green salad Snack: 30g almonds and 30g dried fruit

Dinner: Grilled lamb steak with vegetables and brown rice

Snack: Smoothie (250 ml reduced-fat milk with a banana and 1–2 teaspoons honey)

Breakfast: ½ cup baked beans on 2 slices wholegrain toast with tomato, mushrooms, avocado and herbs

Lunch: 3 wholegrain crackers with salad and 20g reduced-fat cheese Snack: An apple

Dinner: Chicken pasta with vegetables and pesto

Breakfast: Omelette made with 1 egg, with red onion, tomato, herbs and 40g grated reduced-fat cheese on 2 slices wholegrain toast

Lunch: ½ cup tinned mixed beans with 1 cup salad vegetables and ½–1 cup couscous

Snack: An orange and 15g walnuts

Dinner: Beef stir-fry with sugarsnap peas, broccoli, carrot, asparagus spring onions, cashews and noodles


Mehanika

Accuracy is weighed against the target's evasion when determining if an attack hits or misses according to: Ώ] ΐ]



Chance to hit can not be lower than 5% but can hit 100%.

    , Worthy Foe, Vigilant Strike, and The Effigon The Effigon
    Gold Amulet Requires Level 57 (12-20)% increased Rarity of Items found +25 to Dexterity
    Adds 12 to 24 Fire Damage to Attacks
    +(100-150) to Accuracy Rating
    +(100-150) to Evasion Rating
    +(20-30)% to Fire Resistance
    Your Hits can't be Evaded by Blinded Enemies
    Damage Penetrates 10% Fire Resistance against Blinded Enemies By light we are shadowed,
    in darkness we are bound. will raise the chance to hit to 100%, ignoring all accuracy and evasion stats of the attacker and defender respectively. does the same, in reverse all attacks against the subject will hit regardless of accuracy.

Spells do not benefit from accuracy since evasion does not aid in avoiding them.


Billy Martin, Baseball's Brawling Genius, May Belong In Hall Of Fame

“Billy had to be dragged off [Clint] Courtney, flailing and thrashing like a madman,” writes Bill Pennington in Billy Martin: Baseball's Flawed Genius, his new biography of the fiery baseball player and manager (Houghton, Mifflin, Harcourt, 527 pages, $30). “It is how most of Billy’s fights or near-fights ended. From Clint Courtney to his dustup with Reggie Jackson in a Boston dugout twenty-five years later, the final scenes are always the same: Billy, wild-eyed and out of control, trying to get at someone to continue the fight.”

Almost all of his punching bags took a pounding. “Maybe Billy was just better at punching people than the rest of us,” said Tommy Lasorda, Martin’s friend and the longtime Dodgers’ manager. “Maybe that’s why everyone knew about it when it happened. He was laying guys out.” In 1979 Battling Billy punched a marshmallow salesman. Yes that was really his job. The man fell to the marble floor of the hotel “with a thud" a security man then took him to a hospital where doctors sewed 15 stitches to close the gashes in his face. During the previous year a young reporter caught Martin off guard and asked too many tough questions. He ended up in the hospital where he was treated for a cut lip, three chipped teeth, and a gash above his eyes. His medical bills, mostly for dental work, were $7500 ($27,000 adjusted for inflation today). Martin’s legal adviser and friend arranged to have a third party pick up the tab. During Martin’s playing days in 1960 he was at the center of a mauling of a pitcher, Jim Brewer, who required two surgeries to repair a fractured orbital bone near his eye. Brewer and the Chicago Cubs sued Martin for $2 million. Deadpanned Billy, “Ask Mr. Wrigley [the team owner] how he would like it, cash or check.” After a lengthy trial, Martin was ordered to pay Brewer $22,000 (almost $175,000 today) for his “suffering” and legal fees. The amount exceeded a year’s salary for Martin.

After reading Pennington’s thoroughly entertaining and brutally honest biography, its safe to say that as both a player and as a manager Billy Martin led one of the most violent and tumultuous lives of any baseball player in history. The chip on his shoulder was superhuman. Mickey Mantle, Martin’s close friend and teammate, said that “Billy is the only guy in the world who can hear someone give him the finger.”

Recounting each brawl on the field and in barrooms in vivid detail, Pennington paints a portrait of an outlaw from the Wild West with a hair-trigger temper who punched first and asked questions later, if at all. I recently enjoyed a two-hour conversation with Pennington, an award-winning sports writer for The New York Times, at Foley’s NY Pub & Restaurant across the street from the Empire State Building, where the author appeared for a book-signing. Pennington said that “Martin is mostly remembered for fighting and getting fired, a drinking, kicking, lunatic— a multifaceted guy lost to history. There’s so much more to this guy than this caricature. How do you compile a winning percentage of .553, which is better than 13 managers in the Hall of Fame? He took over teams that stunk and turned them into winners.”

Of all the aspects of his genius, his truest may have been to ability to motivate men to believe in themselves. Loyal teammates and players spoke of him having their backs, either by waging war against owners or umpires. “He wanted others to know he was fighting for them,” Pennington writes. While most fans can recall his clashes with Reggie Jackson, the mercurial Rickey Henderson adored Martin as a father figure and played hard for him. In Martin’s era the press sometimes depicted Latino players, even Roberto Clemente, as hot-tempered, sullen, or moody rather than probe the financial and cultural barriers they had to overcome. Coming from a broken home himself, Martin was able to identify with them. Five of Martin’s Latino players named their sons after him. Martin was also exceedingly generous, never turning down an invitation to an umpire's charity event.

Pennington includes a version of Casey Stengel’s famous quote that the secret to managing is keep the five guys who hate you from the four guys who haven’t made up their minds. After tough losses Martin flipped over many a post-game buffet table, sending deli meats and mustard flying across players’ shoes and lockers. Martin publicly browbeated players whom he thought were dogging it or skipped the brow part and simply beat them. He clobbered a Twins pitcher named Dave Boswell, a much taller and heavier man. “Dave’s face was all black and blue and he looked like he had been hit with Jake LaMotta or something,” said teammate Jim Kaat. During a fight at a hotel bar, Ed Lee Whitson, an underperforming pitcher with the Yankees, kicked Martin in the groin. “Billy was doubled over in pain,” Pennington writes. “But then he stood up straight and took a deep breath, like something a character in an action movie would do. And, then, in a firm, defiant voice he said to Whitson, ‘Now, I’m going to have to kill you.” You’ll have to buy the book to learn the four-round fight’s outcome. Suffice to say, it gets even better than that.

As a young Times reporter covering Martin from 1980 through 1989, Pennington was an eyewitness to many of the events in his book including Martin v. Whitson. But this is no memoir. Pennington is the Robert Caro of baseball biographers. His bibliography of books, magazine articles, and newspaper archives runs eight pages long. Pennington, a reporter’s reporter, conducted 225 interviews not just of players and coaches, but bartenders, subway workers, and hotel managers— virtually anyone who ever crossed paths with Martin.

Pennington, an elegant writer in the tradition of Times legends Red Smith, Dave Anderson, and George Vecsey, brings to life his Shakespearean tragic hero, a King Lear in pinstripes raging against the baseball storms. “It was always Billy against the world,” Jim Kaat said. “It’s almost as if needs adversaries in his life.”

The narrative arc of Billy Martin: Flawed Genius resembles a sine wave. Martin is hired with great fanfare because he is the people’s choice. His team, usually lousy, vastly exceeds expectations and wins their division, the pennant, or, in the Yankees’ case, a World Series. Martin can’t stay away from bars and gets into fights like a real gunslinger. (“Guys would line up to be the one to knock him out,” Pennington told me. “He didn’t draw. He just hit.”) Martin’s brazen defiance of authority costs him his job. A fierce public backlash against ownership ensues. The front office switchboard lights up and either the owner hides out, fearing for his life, or is hung in effigy. It happened in Minnesota, Detroit, Texas, Oakland, and in New York. Martin lost nine managerial jobs in all, including Yankees owner George Steinbrenner’s serial hiring and firing.

Besides winning wherever he landed. Pennington attributes Martin’s deep appeal to his blue-collar everyman ethic: “He told his bosses to shove it. “Often.” How many of us wish we would have done the same, particularly working for a boss as tyrannical as Steinbrenner who once fired a secretary for ordering him the wrong sandwich. In Minnesota Calvin Griffith, the Twins’ owner insisted that Martin meet with him two or three times a week to discuss strategy at any time, except when he took a nap, from 5:00 to 5:30. Martin knocked on his door one day at 5:00 and at 5:15 on another, explaining those were the only times he could meet. Griffith gave up and canceled the meetings. In Texas, Martin, ordered the public address announcer to play John Denver’s “Thank God, I’m a Country Boy” during the 7 th inning stretch instead of “Take Me Out to the Ballgame,” which the owner demanded. Martin was terminated. Echoing Kaat, Martin’s son Billy Joe said. “Sometimes it was almost as if he manufactured excuses to get out of a situation."

At Foley’s, Pennington laughed repeating Yankees manager and executive Lou Pinella’s line that whenever Steinbrenner said Martin “looked tan and rested” the owner signaled his intention to rehire him. “As soon as he took over it was like watching the picture of Dorian Gray,” Pennington said. If you ever needed proof that you should leave your work place troubles back at the office, look how much Martin aged in the photos of this book.

Much of Martin’s volatility and empathy probably stemmed from his Dickensian childhood in West Berkeley, the city’s poor section at the bottom of the hills. His mother, Jenny Martin, worked at a speakeasy and whorehouse and put a knife to his paternal father’s neck, threatening to kill him if didn’t leave or ever returned. Billy had to fight his way to school against kids who mocked him as Horn and Pinocchio because of his big nose, which he had multiple surgeries to correct. “Don’t take shit from anybody,” his mother taught him. Pennington presents numerous memorable scenes with Jenny. One of Martin’s three wives tried to learn the secrets to his mother’s Italian cooking to keep her husband happy, but Jenny sabotaged her by rushing through steps in the recipes when she was in the bathroom, apparently because Jenny wanted her son to come home for momma’s meals. While managing Oakland an elderly woman in the stands asked a cameraman to summon “the little cocksucker" for her. Of course she turned out to be his mom, visiting from her nearby neighborhood.

For much of his life off the field or away from a bar, Martin was a fish out water. Pennington touches on the “insidious disease” of alcoholism. “Why didn’t someone talk to him about his drinking?” the Rangers’ Tom Grieve asked. ”But that’s not what people did 40 years ago. I admit I think about it now, even forty years later. It was sad because I loved playing for him.” Pennington speculates that had Martin been born in 1948 rather than 1928, he would have received help in a more enlightened age. My WebMD impression is that his bouts with the bottle may have been the tip of his problem. He almost appears manic depressive or to have had a bipolar disorder. Whatever the case, he was certainly hell-bent on his own self-destruction long before medications like Prozac could have blunted some of his personality’s sharper edges. Maybe today he would see a psychiatrist, something Pennington reveals that he never did. A close baseball friend of mine told me that Martin reminds him of another “charming sociopath,” Hal Chase the sinister Yankees first baseman a century ago.

For those of old enough to remember, Martin’s death in a car crash in 1989 at age 61 somehow seemed shocking and inevitable at the same time. On Christmas Night, no less, he and a drinking buddy were heading home on icy roads from one of the few open bars in town and he wasn’t wearing a seatbelt that probably could have stopped his head from smashing a windshield. Only a miracle could have saved him this time.

From the vantage point of 25 years later, all he psychodrama swirling around Martin obscures his keen baseball mind. “Risk didn’t worry Billy,” the awe-struck Hall of Fame manager Tony LaRussa said. “His genius is really not properly understood.” In the game’s vast continuum, Martin learned from his manager, the crafty Casey Stengel in the 1950s, who learned from his scrappy manager, John McGraw, in the early 1900s. Like a master chess player The Brat, his less affectionate nickname, was usually thinking three plays ahead of his opponent. He was also adept at stealing signs. But the main goal of the much-vaunted Billy Ball, which earned him a Time magazine cover story, was “pressuring offensive tactics.” To manufacture runs, he had his players execute squeeze plays. Rod Carew stole home seven times in 1969. Martin even orchestrated successful triple steals with the bases loaded infielders were at a loss trying to decide where to throw the ball. “He had a standing rule with the Tigers,” Pennington writes. “Any player who got hit with a pitch with the bases loaded would get $150 in cash and the right to pick his next day off.”

His trick plays were so old-school that they would have made McGraw proud. There was the hidden ball ploy whereby an infielder would pretend to throw the ball back to the pitcher and tag out a napping runner. With men on first and third, the trail runner would stumble off first to get in a rundown and the lead runner would break for home. He usually scored. For the perfect spitball, Martin had a pitcher rub the inside of a pant leg with soap. As the game wore on, the oozing sweat created a slimy mess in a location no umpire dared check.

I couldn’t help but wonder what a wonderful jolt a tactician like Bill Martin would give today’s somewhat sluggish game. How often do you see a steal of home, let alone a suicide squeeze? “It’s a lost era we will never see again,” Pennington told me. “Managing by the book is safer. He’s a guy who managed totally by his gut and didn’t care what people thought. He lived by his own rules. It had to be his own rules.”


Opinion: Being coeliac isn’t a choice – here’s why more awareness is needed

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Having been forced into eating gluten free since 2016, food and drink writer Rebecca Shearer discusses why we should all be taking some time to reflect on our choices this Coeliac Awareness Week.

As much of the hospitality industry has started to reopen its doors, people are able to go out and eat in restaurants, cafes and bars for the first time in a long time.

But not everyone is able to rejoice in the fact that we can have a meal out with friends again, namely those who are sufferers of coeliac disease.

Coeliac disease is an auto-immune condition in which the body fails to digest gluten. Sufferers can experience a whole range of symptoms, including bloatedness, nausea, tiredness, mouth ulcers or anaemia, if they eat gluten, which is mostly found in wheat, barley, rye and some oats.

Own experience

From my own experience, I know well that following a gluten-free diet sounds so much easier than it is. I’ve been unable to eat gluten since August 2016 following a horrible stomach virus that has caused me to develop an intolerance to it, though I am yet to be tested for coeliac disease itself.

Often, people mistake a gluten-free diet to be a “fad” or lifestyle choice, in the same way as veganism and vegetarianism are, without actually realising that there is an allergy involved. It’s often a source of frustration when people assume that not eating gluten means you’re trying to be “healthy”.

Coeliac disease and gluten intolerances aren’t a choice, nor are they a lifestyle. As society isn’t as gluten-free as it perhaps could be, having to eat a gluten-free diet means constant planning, constant reading of labels and constant groans of frustration when something that’s made from potato, rice or corn seems to have been turned into something glutinous by being baked, fried or battered in flour.

Next time

The next time you’re in the supermarket, take a quick look at what goes into a product that you would usually have the glutinous version of – I bet that the gluten-free version will have so many more additives and additional ingredients than you may have realised.

We’re not trying to be healthy, we’re just trying to not make ourselves sick.

The next time the country goes into panic-buying mode and you’re desperate to make spaghetti Bolognese but your local supermarket is out of pasta, I urge you not to reach for the gluten-free version just because “it’s all they had”.

March 2020

In March 2020, when this was reality, myself and many people suffering from a gluten intolerance or coeliac disease around the country found that we couldn’t purchase the basics, including pasta and bread and in some cases even gluten-free flour, because others were sweeping them off the shelves when all the glutinous food was gone.

It wasn’t fair and it’s this kind of ignorance towards the impact it has on other people that those who can’t eat gluten face on a daily basis.

Restaurants and cafes aren’t immune to this. Some do try to offer a limited version of their menu that is gluten free, while others offer no such thing and instead shift their focus to vegan food.

Veganism isn’t an allergy and if a vegan meal was to come into contact with an animal product, the consumer wouldn’t necessarily know about it as they wouldn’t react.

Reaction

If gluten-free food was to come into contact with even the slightest bit of gluten, even if it’s being made on the same counter as a glutinous product before it, someone who is gluten intolerant will know about it within 24 hours of eating it.

Home cooking was a big feature during the first lockdown of the pandemic, but for many who suffer from a gluten allergy or intolerance, it’s been our only option since we were diagnosed as there still isn’t enough awareness out there about it.

So, as Coeliac Awareness Week takes place this May 10-16, take some time to consider how you can help us in your day-to-day life.

Choices

When you’re reaching for the gluten-free sandwich at Marks & Spencer because you fancy “being healthier”, why not consider whether there’s an alternative instead? The next time you’re in a restaurant and want to have a burger with a gluten-free bun because you want to be “healthier”, take a moment to think about whether that will stop someone with a gluten intolerance from being able to enjoy their meal further down the line.

And for all the restaurant, cafe, bar and supermarket owners reading this, we need you to help us bring more awareness into the public conscience, take us just as seriously as you take diets that are a choice and lead the way in making our society a much easier place to be a foodie when your diet is gluten-free.


Avoiding heat illness

She didn’t say “Hi” or even acknowledge our presence as she jogged past us on the trail that hot August day in Lassen Volcanic National Park in northern California. Even at an elevation of 6,000 feet, it was an unseasonably warm 80 degrees and this young runner, no older than 18 years old, wore skimpy jogging clothes that exposed her skin to the searing sun, while carrying no drinking water. Sweating profusely and with skin bright red, she ran up the trail and out of sight, miles from any trailhead.

A half-mile or so up the trail, we again met up with her. Now sitting on a rock crying, she told us her story. She had been jogging with friends when she became separated. She was lost and had been going up and down trails for hours frantically trying to find her way back. Dehydrated and near heat exhaustion, she was so embarrassed and scared that she didn’t ask for help when she passed us the first time. We gave her water and sat her in the shade as her friends caught up with her and brought her back.

We think of heat illnesses, such as heat exhaustion, heat stroke, or dehydration, as something that affects firefighters wearing heavy protective clothing in hot conditions or something that our soldiers face fighting in the desert. Heat illnesses affect many of us in our daily lives, however. Every year we hear of high school football players that die from heat stroke during summer practice. In athletes, heat stroke is the second leading cause of death. Elderly die in the cities during heat waves. Hikers die, as do those stranded when their cars break down.

In a normal year, an average of 175 Americans die of heat illnesses. During the heat wave of 1980, 1,250 Americans died. The sad thing is that heat illnesses are largely preventable through planning and common sense.

The body and heat

The body produces heat from food and from muscles during exercise. Normal metabolism generates 2,000 to 5,000 kilocalories per day and would raise the temperature of your body 1.5 degrees every hour if it were not for the body’s cooling mechanisms. When you exercise heavily or carry a backpack in hot temperatures, heat production by the body increases five to tenfold. Add to that hot and humid environmental conditions and it is easy to overheat, a process called hyperthermia.

Normally, the body reduces heat by sending more blood to the skin where blood vessels dilate to bring the blood closer to the surface where it can be cooled by the lower air temperature. This only works when the air temperature is lower than the body temperature. Normal core body temperature is 98.6 degrees. When air temperatures exceed 95 degrees, the blood is not cooled in this manner.

Sweating is another way the body uses to lower the temperature of the blood. As the sweat evaporates, it cools the body down. Each quart of sweat that is evaporated on the skin removes about 580 kilocalories of body heat. At this rate, body temperature can normally be regulated.

It is necessary to drink 2 to 3 quarts of water per day to maintain normal metabolism. With sweating caused by physical exercise or in hot temperatures, this can easily increase to 4 to 6 quarts per day (1 to 1.5 gallons), or in extreme conditions over 8 quarts per day. It is possible to sweat away 1 to 2 quarts of water per hour in extreme conditions. The U.S. Army warns that soldiers in hot environments can lose 15 quarts (almost 4 gallons) of water per day.

Humidity also leads to overheating. When the humidity level is over 80%, sweat does not evaporate and the body’s ability to cool is dramatically decreased. Sweat produced drips from the skin and only leads to dehydration without providing cooling.

If enough water is not consumed to replace the lost water, blood vessels in the skin constrict since there is not enough volume of blood to keep them open and sweating ceases in order to conserve water for the body. This leads to the body overheating. When heat-control mechanisms of the body are overloaded, the increased body heat rapidly causes tissue damage to the vital organs such as the brain, heart, kidneys, and muscles, and disrupts the chemical processes of the body.

Four environmental conditions determine the risk of heat illness: The absolute air temperature (ambient temperature) is the air temperature as measured with a thermometer in the shade and is the least important cause. Solar load is the amount of direct sun on the skin and can be an important contributor to heat illness. Full sun on bare skin in severe conditions can add up to 150 kilocalories per hour of heat load to an individual. As mentioned, humidity determines the rate that sweat can evaporate and cause cooling. The drier the air, the greater the evaporation and amount of cooling. Humidity is more important than temperature in determining the risk of overheating. Finally, wind speed is an important factor in assisting evaporation. Cool winds reduce heat stress, while hot winds increase it.

Prevention of heat illnesses

Avoid dehydration: The human body is 75% water and needs a constant new supply since we have no method of storing it in our body. Dehydration, drinking less water than the body needs, is the major cause of all heat-related illnesses. Unfortunately, the body is already two to five percent dehydrated before we begin to feel thirsty and losing only one quart more can produce severe dehydration.

The body conserves water by not producing as much urine when it is dehydrated and urine becomes concentrated and dark yellow in color. Urinating plentiful amounts of light-colored urine shows that you are not dehydrated.

Water loss needs to be replaced, requiring a conscious, continual effort to stay properly hydrated to avoid dehydration. Drink fluids even if you are not thirsty. While consuming 2 to 3 quarts of water a day is pretty easy, it gets harder to comply when water needs increase. Plan your daily water consumption, drinking early and often. If you expect to lose 4 to 5 quarts in a day, drink one quart of water when you wake up, one quart with each of three meals, and small amounts frequently throughout the day. The U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine estimates that the maximum amount of water that can be absorbed per hour is 1.3 quarts and recommends drinking about two cups every 30 minutes during intense periods of work. For hikers and backpackers, a good rule is to drink every time you take a break or stop briefly. During physical activity, it is easier for your body to handle small amounts of water spread out during the day rather than a large amount all at once.

People avoid drinking enough for many reasons, but it is often because their water bottle is difficult to get out of their pack. Water carrier systems, such as the Platypus or CamelBak hydration systems, are very convenient. They consist of collapsible plastic water containers that are placed in your pack or in a separate water backpack. Using a plastic tube from the water container, you can sip on water as you hike without having to reach for a bottle.

Water needs to be drinkable. Water left in the sun on a 105-degree day will be too hot to drink. Plain, cool water at 60 to 70 degrees is more likely to be consumed, and flavorings, such as Kool Aid, Gatorade, lemonade, and others, may help encourage drinking.

Prolonged sweating from heat or exercise can also cause loss of body salts, called electrolytes. Electrolytes are minerals, such as sodium, potassium, and chloride, in the body fluids. They are essential to maintain fluid balance and function of the nerves and muscles.

Sodium chloride (salt) is lost in large enough amounts during heavy sweating to cause medical problems. When an individual replaces lost fluid with normal water, it further dilutes the concentration of sodium in the body. This salt deficit, called hyponatremia, is essentially water intoxication and symptoms may mimic heat exhaustion or gastroenteritis, making a diagnosis difficult. Recently, it has been recognized that many marathon runners develop hyponatremia during races, and rangers at the Grand Canyon National Park have also seen this problem in hikers.

As with dehydration, the good news is that prevention is fairly easy. Experts recommend eating salty snack foods such as Saltine crackers, Pringles potato chips, Cheez-Its, salted nuts, or drinking sports drinks. Single serving bags of Cheez-Its contain 340 mg of sodium and 20 ounces of Gatorade has 114 mg of sodium, enough to prevent hyponatremia. Salt pills, which irritate the lining of the stomach, are no longer recommended on a routine basis.

Acclimatize: The body takes time to acclimatize to temperature. Firefighters who are brought from the cool coastal areas to inland fires where air temperatures are over 100 degrees suffer a high rate of heat-related illness. It takes several days to as long as a week to acclimatize to hot weather. During this time the body will sweat more and lose more salt, which can lead to electrolyte imbalance. With acclimatization, sweating becomes less and the sweat glands secrete less salt.

When first in a hot environment, allow yourself plenty of time to get used to the temperatures before exercising or working for prolonged amounts of time in the heat. To fully acclimatize can take 7 to 10 days, during which time you should exercise about two hours per day. While doing this at home works, most of us don’t have this amount of time to acclimatize when we travel to a new area, such as on vacation. In such cases, minimize the amount of work you do and maximize water intake.

Watch very young and very old individuals carefully in hot weather, as their bodies do not regulate temperature well and they can rapidly become overheated. Age does affect the severity of heat illness. Heat cramps in an 18-year-old may be heat exhaustion in a 40-year-old and heat stroke in someone age 60. Individuals with weight or alcohol problems are especially prone to the heat.

Conserve body water: Minimize or avoid sweat-producing activities in work and travel. This is especially important in survival situations. Stay cool, stay in the shade, and do not lie on hot ground, which can be 30 to 45 degrees hotter than the air. Often, cooler ground can be found by digging just a few inches below the surface. Breathe through your nose to reduce water loss and do not smoke. Eat at a minimum, as water is needed for digestion, and avoid eating fatty foods since they require more water to digest.

Hike or work in the early morning or late afternoon when the sun is low and the heat is less intense, causing less water loss from sweating. Walk at an easy pace and wear lightweight, light-colored, loose-fitting clothes. These allow more ventilation and reflect the heat better than dark colors. Don’t expose your skin to the hot sun and wear a broad-brimmed hat to keep the sun off your face.

Other precautions

Get plenty of rest. The U. S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine has found that fatigue and lack of sleep reduces the body’s ability to regulate heat, causing overheating.

Be aware of the environmental conditions that you may face. Know the anticipated temperature, humidity, wind, and solar load predicted for the day and plan your activity and water intake accordingly. The National Weather Service heat index is a way to help determine the risk of developing heat illnesses. It is a chart that combines the air temperature and relative humidity to derive the “apparent air temperature,” essentially how hot it really feels when humidity is added to the air temperature. For example, an air temperature of 95 degrees with 60 percent humidity has the same effect on your body (apparent air temperature) as 114 degrees. These are for temperatures taken in shady conditions. In full sun, they can be up to 15 degrees higher. At an apparent air temperature above 90 degrees, risk of heat illness is high and activity should be adjusted accordingly.

Certain drugs and medications taken in hot weather conditions can promote heat illness. Avoid taking drugs such as atropine and anti-motion sickness drugs which hinder sweating, beta-blockers which decrease cardiac output, diuretics which promote dehydration, antihistamines and antidepressants which alter normal physiology, and drugs such as hallucinogens and cocaine which increase muscle activity and therefore body heat. Some of these should not be stopped on your own, so talk to your doctor if you anticipate this being a problem.

Management of heat illnesses

Dehydration: Thirst, irritability, nausea, and weakness occur with 5% loss of body water, only 2.5 quarts for a 150-pound person. A 10% loss will cause headache, dizziness, inability to walk, and tingling sensations of the arms and legs. At 15% loss, the tongue becomes swollen, vision can dim, numb sensations occur on the skin, and urination may be painful. Any greater water loss can cause death.

Treatment is to replace lost fluids by drinking water, juice, lemonade, Gatorade or similar sports drinks, soup, or decaffeinated coffee. Drinking alcoholic and caffeinated beverages is discouraged since they increase urination and promote dehydration. Drink until you begin urinating pale yellow urine, remembering that it can take 6 to 8 hours for the fluids in the body to become balanced before urine production will begin.

If the person is not alert or is having prolonged vomiting or diarrhea, they should be evacuated immediately to medical care so that intravenous fluids can be given.

Heat Edema: Heat edema (swelling) is common, especially in the elderly, during the first few days in a hot environment. The hands, ankles, and feet become puffy or swollen and rings may become tight or difficult to remove. Remove rings or constrictive jewelry and minimize walking. When resting, keep the feet elevated. The swelling should resolve on its own within a few days. If leg swelling is associated with shortness of breath or the individual is otherwise ill, swelling may be due to other causes and a physician should be seen.

Miliaria Rubra (Prickly Heat): Prickly heat is an itchy, red, bumpy rash caused by plugged sweat glands on areas of the skin that are kept wet by sweating such as the armpits and groin. Treatment involves cooling and drying the affected skin while trying to avoid further sweating. Itching may be relieved by taking antihistamines, such as Benadryl 25 to 50 mg every 6 hours.

Heat Syncope: Syncope (fainting) is caused by insufficient blood to the brain. In the heat, blood vessels on the skin dilate, taking blood from the brain and heart, and standing for long periods of time causes blood to stay in the legs. Both of these things, along with lower blood volume from dehydration, can cause lack of blood to the brain resulting in a person becoming light-headed, dizzy, or fainting.

Have the person lie down with their legs elevated until the symptoms have resolved. Give them cool fluids to drink while cooling the skin with water or by placing ice packs or cool cloths next to the neck, armpits, and groin.

Heat Cramps: Painful muscle spasms can occur in overheated muscles that are exercised heavily. Often they occur in individuals who are salt deficient. Cramps often begin when the individual is resting after exercise and present as severe pain and spasms of the calf, thigh, abdomen, or hand muscles.

Treatment is to have the individual rest in a cool environment while drinking plenty of fluids. Apply steady, gentle massaging-type pressure to the cramped muscle. Salt drinks or snacks are helpful with heat cramps.

Heat Exhaustion: The most common form of heat-related illness is heat exhaustion. If not treated, it can continue on to become heat stroke, a life-threatening emergency. Heat exhaustion is overheating of the body temperature that does not cause permanent damage, while heat stroke can permanently disable or kill the victim.

Heat exhaustion occurs when the heart and cardiovascular system cannot meet the needs of the skin (temperature regulation), muscles, and internal organs. It usually involves both dehydration and salt depletion. Heat exhaustion is frequently seen as part of other conditions such as illnesses that cause fever, loss of electrolytes, or gastrointestinal illnesses.

Symptoms may include thirst, fatigue, nausea, weakness, loss of appetite, vomiting, headache, dizziness on standing from a seated position, and muscle cramps. Sweating is almost always present however, it may be absent and the skin may feel cool to the touch. Mental status is usually normal, although there may be minor confusion or agitation. The pulse is weak and rapid.

Treatment involves taking the stress off of the cardiovascular system and heart. The individual should stop all physical activity, rest in a cool, shaded environment, and remove any heavy or restrictive clothing. Have them drink plenty of fluids containing small amounts of salt, as you would for dehydration.

While heat exhausted individuals may be able to cool off enough on their own, it is best to use external cooling methods to help them. Cool water can be splashed on the skin while fanning the individual. Better yet, ice or cold packs can be placed along the side of the neck, armpits, and groin areas where large blood vessels are relatively close to the skin. This promotes rapid cooling of the blood. Be careful not to put ice packs directly on the skin for long periods of time. Wrap them in a light towel or cloth.

Individuals with heat exhaustion appear to recover very quickly with the above care. However, it takes the body 24 hours of rest and re-hydration to fully recover.

Heat Stroke: As heat exhaustion progresses, the body’s cooling system completely breaks down and the blood and organs overheat. Known as heat stroke, this is a true medical emergency that has an 80 percent chance of death if not treated.

The difference between heat exhaustion and heat stroke is technically the presence of tissue injury, something that is difficult at best to tell in pre-hospital situation. For practical purposes, anyone who has symptoms of heat exhaustion and abnormal changes in their mental state, such as extreme confusion, disorientation, anxiety, agitation, or inability to walk in a straight line, should be considered to have heat stroke. They may also develop seizures or coma.

Body temperature is hot, usually over 105 degrees. Blood pressure is usually low (check for a weak pulse in the wrist), pulse high (greater than 100 beats per minute), and breathing rapid (over 20 breaths per minute). The skin may be red and hot, although this does not occur with everyone. Sweating may have stopped or may be present.

Heat stroke is a medical emergency that requires rapid hospitalization. Seek help immediately. Above 106 degrees, the body can lose the ability to control its own temperature and temperatures can rise uncontrollably causing severe damage to the kidneys, liver, brain, heart, muscles, and coagulation systems. Intensive medical care is required.

While waiting for help, immediately cool the victim as quickly as possible using the techniques described under heat exhaustion. If available, the individual can be carefully immersed in cool water. Do not immerse in ice water, which can cause severe constriction of the skin blood vessels and limit the ability to lose heat. It can also cause shivering, which is the body’s way to generate more heat—not something you need at this time. Treat for shock by lying the person down with legs elevated.

Do not give the individual anything to drink because of the risk of vomiting and aspirating stomach contents into the lungs. Medicines for fever, such as Tylenol or aspirin, are of no help and should not be given.

Most heat illnesses are entirely preventable through proper planning and hydration. Remember to know the environmental conditions you are facing, stay properly hydrated, and avoid over-exposure to the sun and heat. Doing so will let you enjoy the outdoors without becoming the next victim of the heat.


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Komentari:

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